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organic chemistry - What is "heating under reflux .

This refers to heating a solution with an attached condenser to prevent reagents from escaping. As seen above, any vapor will condense on the cool surface of the attached condenser and flow back into the flask. The hot water bath pictured is an optional component of heating under reflux and is usually only used for particularly sensitive reactions.

Bioreactor - Wikipedia

A bioreactor refers to any manufactured device or system that supports a biologically active environment. In one case, a bioreactor is a vessel in which a chemical process is carried out which involves organisms or biochemically active substances derived from such organisms. This process can either be aerobic or anaerobic.These bioreactors are commonly cylindrical, ranging in size from litres .

Lab Reactors - Lab Mixers - Lab Stirrers - Homgenizerzs by .

LR-2.ST Lab Reactor: The IKA® LR-2.ST system is a modulary designed miniplant reactor system, planned and designed to simulate and optimize chemical reaction processes as well as mixing, dispersion and homogenization processes at a model scale with a maximum volume of 2000 ml.

Pyrolysis Reactors - IEA Bioenergy

As reaction rates are not limited by heat transfer through the biomass particle large particles can be used, and in principle there is no upper limit to the size that can be processed. The process in fact is limited by the rate of heat supply to the reactor rather than the rate of heat absorption by the pyrolysing biomass as in other reactors.

Nuclear Propulsion

The primary system circulates ordinary water and consists of the reactor, piping loops, pumps and steam generators. The heat produced in the reactor is transferred to the water under high pressure so it does not boil. This water is pumped through the steam generators and back into the reactor for re-heating.

Chemical Reaction Engineering Lab and Engineering .

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Heat of reaction | chemistry | Britannica

Heat of reaction, the amount of heat that must be added or removed during a chemical reaction in order to keep all of the substances present at the same temperature. If the pressure in the vessel containing the reacting system is kept at a constant value, the measured heat of reaction also represents the change in the thermodynamic quantity called enthalpy, or heat content, accompanying the .

Heat Block at Thomas Scientific

NMR Heating Reaction block is designed to rest on a round or square top hot plate stirrers. NMR heating block is an ideal replacement for oil baths.Block provides a safe and clean way for preheating NMR tubes, performing kinetics and degradation studies in 5mm NMR tubes. All blocks are anodized.

Heat Block at Thomas Scientific

The Programmable Heating Blocks are designed for precise controlling of sample temperatures. Heating Blocks, also known as dry bath incubators, use aluminum inserts to suit the use of many types of laboratory test tubes, plates, and containers. Boekel programmable heating blocks are designed to be. Related Products: Tube Incubator

Download - Reactor Lab

This is an archival copy. Reactor Lab has been removed from this copy and the "on line" functions do not work. This archival copy of SimzLab contains working copies of PureWaterLab, the Control Lab, and a heat exchanger simulation. Only a Windows OS version is available here.

How to set up a reflux apparatus

the lab beforehand. • Be careful with concentrated sulfuric acid. It is highly corrosive. • Make sure that all the tubings are securely attached to the condenser. • Use hose clips in case the water leaks. • Do not plug the heating mantle directing into the wall outlet. • Do not touch the heating mantle once the reaction has started.

Structure and Function of the Skin - Skin Disorders .

Heat makes the blood vessels enlarge (dilate), allowing large amounts of blood to circulate near the skin surface, where the heat can be released. Cold makes the blood vessels narrow (constrict), retaining the body's heat.

COD Reactor - MRC-Lab

Chemical Oxygen demand COD reactor Chemical oxygen demand (COD) test is commonly used to indirectly measure the amount of organic compounds in water. Most applications of COD determine the amount of organic pollutants found in surface water (e.g. lakes and rivers) or wastewater, making COD a useful measure of water quality.

Pyrolysis Reactors - IEA Bioenergy

Bubbling fluid bed reactor with electrostatic precipitator Heating can be achieved in a variety of ways as shown in the figure below and scaling is well understood. However, heat transfer to bed at large-scales of operation has to be considered carefully due to scale-up limitations of different methods of heat transfer.

In-line Reaction Technology | Fluitec - Mixing and .

The modular design of the Contiplant In-line reaction technology system is based on Fluitec's continuous mixer / heat exchangers. Fluitec mixer-heat exchanger allows in each process to be developed quickly and precisely for the target product on a laboratory scale.

Chemical reactors - Essential Chemical Industry

The design of the reactor is determined by many factors but of particular importance are the thermodynamics and kinetics of the chemical reactions being carried out. The two main types of reactor are termed batch and continuous. Batch reactors. Batch reactors are used for most of the reactions carried out in a laboratory. The reactants are .

Oil Baths in Laboratories | Environmental Health and Safety

A laboratory oil bath is made of an aluminum or stainless steel pan, a heavy porcelain dish or thick walled Pyrex ® glass to withstand breakage and accidental spill. The electric heating coil (or oil bath on a hot plate) is controlled using a variable voltage controller (i.e., Variac).

Modelling a Process - A Tank Heating System

The heat added to the system, Qin, is a function of the overall heat transfer coefficient, U (W/m 2 K), the area available for heat transfer, A (m 2), the driving force for heat transfer which is the difference between the jacket temperature and the reactor temperature. Qin is given by: Rearranging the above equation, we get:

Design Level of Operation for the Jacketed Stirred Reactor .

Like the heat exchanger and gravity drained tanks case studies, the jacketed stirred reactor is a self regulating processes. That is, the measured process variable (PV) naturally seeks a steady operating level if the controller output (CO) and major disturbance .

Heat of reaction | chemistry | Britannica

Heat of reaction, the amount of heat that must be added or removed during a chemical reaction in order to keep all of the substances present at the same temperature. If the pressure in the vessel containing the reacting system is kept at a constant value, the measured heat of reaction also represents the change in the thermodynamic quantity called enthalpy, or heat content, accompanying the .

Laboratory High Temperature Furnace HTF - Carbolite Gero

The laboratory HTF high temperature furnace range comprises 1700 °C and 1800 °C models. The two smaller models in each temperature are bench mounted and the larger units are floor-standing.

Visual Encyclopedia of Chemical Engineering

A CSTR can also function as a loop reactor when a heated, pressurized fluid is injected into the system to facilitate the stirring. This allows for higher heat and mass transfer rates while simplifying maintenance because there is no agitator. The picture below is of a cell culture reactor.

What is the Function of Magnetic Stirrer? - Lab .

In general, there are two magnetic stirrer function s: heating and stirring. The stirring function of magnetic stirrer: 1.To uniformly mix the reaction material and balance temperature distribution, in order to speed up reaction or evaporation, then shorten reaction time; 2.When heating material in an airtight vessel, magnetic stirring can .


Many reaction processes already utilize a heat transfer fluid/medium that is either cooled or heated accordingly to provide flexibility in multi-step reaction processes. Regardless of the method used, one of the important considerations when using LIN for cooling purposes is a properly designed supply sys-

Digital Lab Thermostatic Water Bath Single Hole Electric .

FEATURES It can quick make water temperature meeting the temperature as requirement because it has stirring function .It has a large tank and is suitable for making various experiments in scientific and productive department. Applications: Digital constant temperature oil bath for distillation, drying, rotary evaporators, concentration and immersion Pickled chemicals, precision casting plant .

1. According To The Textbook (Technique 6) There A .

1 day ago · According to the textbook (Technique 6) there are two ways to heat reaction mixtures in the lab: using a water bath, or using a sand bath. Suppose a chemist needs to conduct a reaction that calls for a 3 hour reflux using one of the solvents below. Place an "X" in the yellow box or boxes next to the heating method(s) that would be appropriate .

Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Systems

The primary function of the reactor coolant system is to transfer the heat from the fuel to the steam generators. A second function is to contain any fission products that escape the fuel. The following drawings show the layout of the reactor coolant systems for three pressurized water reactor vendors.

Reactors - processdesign

Enthalpy of Reaction The heat given out in a chemical reaction is based on the enthalpies of the component chemical reactions, which are given for standard temperature and pressure (1 atm, 25 C). Values for standard heats of reaction can be found tabulated in literature, or can be calculated from heats of formation or combustion.

Lab apparatus - LinkedIn SlideShare

Jul 02, 2013 · Lab tongs are a type of forceps designed to grip laboratory items used during a heating process. Opening and closing lab tongs is an intuitive action. You will avoid accidents by always using the tongs during heating experiments. You can handle lab tongs safely by complying with some basic safety procedures. 15 WIRE GAUZE WITH CERAMIC CENTER .

Reactions in HYSYS

The Plug Flow Reactor can be used with Kinetics, Kinetics (Rev. Eqm.), or Langmuir-Hinshelwood reactions (any number and combination of the three types can be used in the reaction set). An excellent description of each of the PFR's inputs can be found in Section 13.10 of RV 2.